The Internet was created in part as an experiment by DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) for the US Department of Defense (DoD). The first Internet was known as ARPANET and computers were connected together of existing phone lines. By the end of 1969 4 “host” computers were connected. By 1973, ARPANET had 2 international computers, one in London and one in Norway. In 1977 the first email application was created. In 1984 DNS (Domain Name System) was created. This was significant because it allowed users to connect to a computer using a friendly name, like whatshtml.com, instead of an IP address. In 1990 the first web server was born.
Tim Berners-Lee, a British research scientist, invented a more efficient way of sharing information between computers. The way he connected these documents together (today known as “linking”) was revolutionary. He created the web. While at CERN he created the standards for HTTP, URI, and HTML. Today we’ll be learning HTML, but just for reference: HTTP stands for Hyper Text Transfer Protocol; URI stands for Uniform Resource Identifiers; and HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language.